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    Clément Marot (1496 - 1544)

    Clément Marot was born in Cahors in 1496. He spent his childhood with his mother in Cahors en Quercy, land of the Oc language. His father Jean Marot (1463-1526) was a court poet, one of the "great rhetoricians" of the time, in the service of Queen Anne of Brittany, wife of Louis XII.  In 1505, when Clement was only ten years old, his father brought him to Paris with the intention of making him a lawyer. Little motivated, the young man accepts a page job in the house of the Marquis Neuville de Villeroy (Nicolas 1er de Neuville, finance secretary of Louis XII) while starting to rhyme.  

    He composed The Temple of Cupid for the marriage of François d'Angoulême and Claude de France (May 18, 1514), an allegorical poem noticed at court. Clement then entered as a page in the service of the influential Marguerite d'Alençon, elder sister of François I and future queen of Navarre.  After the death of his father (1526), ​​Marot did everything to succeed him as "valet de chambre du roi" with François 1st. The charge requires being present at court, entertaining the sovereign (even on the battlefield), glorifying his reign.  

    His sympathies for new ideas and the Reformation, his frequentation, his great freedom of mind attracted him many setbacks and made him some irreducible enemies, in particular at the Sorbonne. In 1529, accused of heresy, he was put in jail. Released on the intervention of François Ier, he becomes the official poet of the court.  

    In 1532, Marot published under the title L'Adolescence clémentine all of the poems he had composed. The collection “in beautiful book form” groups and classifies rondeaux, epigrams, elegies, epistles, ballads, epitaphs and songs (intended for music). The work reflects the fine palette of the poet-courtier's talents and heralds the Renaissance and the spirit of the Pleiade. Again worried in 1532, then in 1534 after the affair of the cupboards (displayed up to the door of the king's bedroom at the Amboise castle), the poet took refuge in Nérac with his protector Marguerite d'Angoulême who became queen of Navarre by his remarriage (1527).  

    Clément Marot not feeling safe, takes refuge in Ferrara where he is welcomed by Renée de France, daughter of Louis XII and Anne of Brittany. The ducal court, one of the most brilliant of the Italian Renaissance, is the refuge of many persecuted Protestants. Marot named "secretary" of the duchess, meets Calvin there. He translated into French and into verse Six Sonnetz on the death of his lady Laure du Canzoniere from Pétrarque and wrote the first sonnet in French, dedicated to the Duchess of Ferrara, immediately imitated by the poets of the Lyonnaise School.  

    Pope Paul III intervenes with the Duke. Marot must take refuge in Venice. Pardoned by the king, Marot abjured Protestantism in Lyon in 1536 in the hands of Cardinal François de Tournon, theFrançois 1er's  "Richelieu". Back to Paris in 1537, he regained the status of official poet of the court and translated the psalms of David into French, in verses and stanzas, so that they could be more easily memorized, in order to be sung.

    In 1539, Marot presented to King François I the manuscript of the first thirty psalms. Before they are even printed, they are sung at court and throughout France. The success is considerable, as much with the Catholics as with the Protestants. Musicians set them to music. Like Claudin de Sermisy and later Claude Goudimel (1561) and Claude Le Jeune (1564).

    In 1542, the re-edition of one of his works, L’Enfer, satirizing people of justice written after his detention at Châtelet, earned him a new charge of heresy. He then took refuge in Geneva with Calvin who encouraged him to resume the translation and putting into "French rhymes" of the psalms.

    He died in Turin in 1544, poor and miserable, without having been able to complete his task. He is buried in the Saint-Jean church. His Poitevin friend Lyon Jamet, secretary of Renée de France, made him erect a monument of marble with epitaphs which have disappeared.  

    After Marot death, Calvin commissioned Théodore de Bèze to continue his work and translate Cent psaulmes de David, printed in Geneva. Finally, the psalms, sung first by Catholics and Protestants, are thanks to Calvin introduced into the cult of the Reforms.  

    Clément Marot remains remarkable in our literature for his hectic life (rebel and provocative) and also for the extent of his talent. Far from the "elegant banter" which Boileau gratifies him, the poet is one of the first to use in virtuoso, in French and in verse, a clear, strong and elegant language, somewhat renewed. Representative of his time at the crossroads of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, painfully torn between traditions and Reformation, his work never departed from a musicality, an accent, which we find underlying each rhyme, from the songs from the Adolescence clémentine to the last psalms.

    © Didier Chagnas


    Claudio Monteverdi, 1567-1643

    Son of a doctor, apothecary and surgeon in Cremona, he received a solid humanist education and studied viola, organ, composition, song and counterpoint with Marco Antonio Ingegnieri, polyphonist and master of chapel at Cremona Cathedral. Early composer, he produced at the age of fifteen a set of twenty motets with three voices. Five years later, he had his first five-part Madrigal Book published in Venice (1587).  

    In 1590, Monteverdi was hired by Duke Vincenzo of Mantua, as music master and then appointed chapel master in 1601. In Mantua, he married in 1599 Claudia Cattaneo, musician and singer at the court (died in 1607).  He accompanied the duke to Florence for the wedding festivities of Marie de Medici and Henry IV.

    The performance of Euridice by Jacopo Péri created on this occasion deeply marked the prince and his suite (October 6, 1600). The year 1607 is the year of the creation of Orféo, commissioned by the Duke of Mantua to compete with the court of the Medici and surpass Euridice by Jacopo Peri. The success was immense and crowned Orfeo, the first great opera in the history of music. In 1608, the "Lamento d'Arianna" (Lasciatemi morire) violated all the rules of composition and etiquette, turned the music upside down and brought tears to the court.  

    In 1613, after the prince's death, Monteverdi became chapel master of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, a duty he held until his death. After the plague which ravaged Venice in 1630 and took away his son Francesco, Monteverdi was ordained a priest. With the Eighth Book of Madrigals (Madrigali guerrieri e amorosi, 1638), the priest remains faithful to the madrigal genre, while developing the very theatrical stile concitato (agitated). So it was already, with the crash of the arms of Combat of Tancrede and Clorinde, 1628, gathered in the collection of 1638.  

    In 1637 a patrician opened in Venice, the first lyric theater for a paying audience, the San Cassiano followed by two other theaters, the San Moisé and San Giovanni e Paolo in 1640. Venice became the world capital of opera. Only two Monteverdi operas written at that time have survived: the Return of Ulysses (1641) and the Coronation of Poppé (1642), mature works by a 75-year-old composer where the principles of a new genre are clearly established.

    Monteverdi's abundant work includes many pages of polyphonic religious music (masses, vespers, psalms, motets ...) and also secular music. Last great representative of the Italian school of madrigal, genre to which he devoted nine Books, Monteverdi places in the center of his compositions the canto solo which he brings to its apogee in his stage music.  

    Monteverdi is not only the last great madrigalist and one of the first opera composers, he is also the inspired ferryman between two cultures, two musics, that of the Renaissance and that of baroque music.

    Claudio Monteverdi dies in Venice in 1643. The city of the Doges organizes with funerals with choirs. Monument in the history of music, "the divine Claudio" sung by d'Annunzio rests in the basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (I Frari) not far from Titian and the sculptor Canova.

    © Didier Chagnas

    • Thomas Morley (1557 - 1602) is an English composer, organist in Oxford and London. He is the pupil and the disciple of William Byrd.
    • Music theorist Thomas Morley published in 1597 a treatise in the form of a dialogue between the teacher and the student.
    • His compositions, close to the Italian madrigal, include masses or services, 8 motets in Latin, nearly 100 songs, "ayres", "balletts", madrigals ... as well as pieces for violas.
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Austrian composer born in Salzburg is Leopold Mozart's son, violinist and composer.
    • From the age of three, Mozart reveals exceptional gifts for music. At six, Wolfgang composed his first minuet. He masters the violin and the harpsichord, and soon the organ. From 1763 to 1766, Leopold organized a tour of Europe to "show" his children. The Mozart family stayed in Paris for six months. In 1767, they moved to Vienna where they stayed until January 1769. Then, back in Salzburg, Wolfgang became konzertmeister (first violin) at court. He is 14 years old ! From this period (1770-1774) date the "Salzburg" symphonies.
    • Baron Tobias Philipp von Gebler, Vice-Chancellor of the Bohemian Court, commissioned 18-year-old Mozart to provide music to accompany the Masonic drama "Thamos, King of Egypt", of which he is the author. The opera was premiered in Vienna in 1774. In 1775 “La Finta Giardiniera” (The Pretend Garden-Girl), was created in Munich. The same year, Mozart wrote in six months Il Re Pastore (The Shepherd King), commissioned by the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg. The premiere takes place in Salzburg at the Archbishop's palace.
    • More and more, Mozart creates and asserts his own musical style. A new journey begins. His mother Anna Maria accompanies him. She died in July 1778 in Paris. By order of his father, Wolfgang returns to Salzburg. In 1779, he was reinstated as Konzertmeister, organist of the Prince Archbishop and the cathedral. On January 29, 1781, "Idomeneo, re di Creta" (Idomeneo, King of Crete) was created for the Munich carnival. Mozart attends his triumph. • Shortly after, he moved to Vienna for the last ten years of his life. He realizes his dream and composes an opera in German. "The Abduction from the Seraglio" was a great success when it was created on July 16, 1782.
    • On August 4, 1782, Wolfgang Amadeus married Constanze Weber, belonging to a musician family, at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. Mozart produces a lot and gives the couple a certain ease. They have six children, (only two will survive).
    • Wolfgang writes “The Marriage of Figaro” on a libretto written by Da Ponte after Beaumarchais. The first performance, on May 1, 1786 in Vienna, was a triumph. Then Wolfgang went to Prague, the capital of Bohemia, where he was celebrated and acclaimed. "Le Nozze" encounters a great success. "Don Giovanni" was premiered on October 29, 1787 at the National Theater in Prague.
    • Wolfgang continues to write but is no longer in fashion. The first performance of "The Magic Flute", a Singspiel, took place on September 30, 1791, in a new theater on the outskirts of Vienna.
    • Wolgang died on December 5, 1791 in Vienna at the age of 35, leaving his Requiem unfinished. His body is put in mass grave.
    • With more than 600 works, Mozart remains one of the greatest composers of all time. No other in the history of music has made a such impression in all the musical genres of his time like him.
    • © Didier Chagnas
    • Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880) French composer and cellist of German origin. His father, cantor at the synagogue in Cologne, had chosen under the empire the name of Offenbach, the city where he came from.
    • Child prodigy he arrived in Paris at the age of thirteen to study the cello. After a year, he left the Conservatoire for positions as an orchestral musician at the Ambigu-Comique theater and at the Opéra-Comique. At the same time, he leads a career as a virtuoso soloist.
    • In 1850, he was musical director of the Théâtre-Français. Five years later, he rented a small hall on his own account, the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, on the Champs-Élysées, near the Universal Exhibition of 1855, in order to be able to produce his works there. This earned him the nickname "Little Mozart of the Champs-Elysées" from Rossini.
    • Several of his works are today classics of the lyric repertoire. Their success goes in part to his librettists, including Henry Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, and to the soprano Hortense Schneider.
    • Under cover of historical subjects evoking antiquity or mythology, and under the pretext of making people laugh, opera-puffs like “Orphée aux enfers” (1858) or “La Belle Hélène” (1864), express a fierce criticism of society of the time.
    • The war of 1870, the fall of the empire, the Commune remove the king from the imperial festival from Paris. After a triumphant tour of the United States, Offenbach returned to France and composed two patriotic works Madame Favart (1878), then “La Fille du tambour-major” (1879), one of his most popular scores. At sixty-one years old, Offenbach began "Les contes d´Hoffmann", his only opera, a synthesis of opera-food, romantic opera and grand opera à la française. Exhausted by the work that was to crown his career, Offenbach died on October 5, 1880, at his Parisian home on boulevard des Capucines, four months before the creation at the Opéra-comique.
    • Jacques Offenbach leaves a catalog of more than one hundred operas and operas. Less known to the general public, his pieces for cello and piano, his religious and symphonic music, his melodies, are imbued with great sensitivity and certain melancholy.
    • © Didier Chagnas